hard work and a little bit of luck we can make the age-old
dream of machines with human-level intelligence come
true in our lifetime. And as Hans Moravec once pointed
out, luck depends on having enough lottery tickets. The
rest requires hard work.
So let's get started!
|Have you ever seen a child take apart a favorite
toy? Did you then see the little one cry after realizing
he could not put all the pieces back together again?
Well, here is a secret that never makes the headlines:
We have taken apart the universe and have no idea how
to put it back together. After spending trillions of
research dollars to dissasemble nature in the last
century, we are just now acknowledging that we have
no clue how to continue - except to take it apart further.
— Albert-Lásló Barbasi
Linked - The New Science of Networks
Intelligence is the foundation of all human activity.
The pursuit of intelligent machines
may be the most important endeavor
humanity can undertake.
Cognitive Architecture & Sentient
Natural intelligence, as
observed in humans and animals, is the result of multiple
systems and subsystems, implementing a complex pattern of
information flow and control. How can complex
interactions between a vast number of largely self-organized
functions produce a thinking mind? This question is first
and last an architectural one: how the system operates as
a whole. Without a deep understanding of architecture we
will never understand intuition, attention, insight, creativity,
or understand understanding itself.
is on how the architecture of mind can be implemented in
an artificial substrate. By building working
– running – models of mind we may be able to
kill two flies in one swat:
understand the mind and build a practical artificial
intelligence (AGI) systems that can be used for a myriad
of tasks, from designing new clothing to
cleaning up our attic to helping solve global warming.
Con - struct - ionist
intelligent manmade system built by hand; learning
is restricted to combining predefined situations
and tasks, based on detailed specifications provided
by a human programmer. While the system may automatically
improve performance in some limited domain,
the domain itself is decided and defined by
Con - struct - ivist A.I.: Self-constructive
artificial intelligence system with general knowledge
acquisition and integration skills. Systems capable
of architectural self-modification and self-directed
growth; develop from a seed specification; capable
of learning to perceive, think and act in a wide
range of novel situations and domains and learning
to perform a number of different tasks.
I try to build larger,
more integrated and complete systems than achieved to date,
because I find it unlikely that mind appears from a simple
principle — rather, I think that the mind is the result
of a vast amount of interacting components, hooked up in
complex ways according to largely unknown principles.
My approach follows two main traditions in systems thinking.
On the one hand is the familiar modular decomposition
from cognitive science and software development. Modularization
(object-orientation being one expression) is the most accepeted
method at present to construct complex systems by hand - constructionist
A.I. Unfortunately this
method has severe limitations, but until recently there really
wasn't a viable alternative available – there is now;
As the proponents of the holistic systems
approach have pointed out (e.g. Varela, Maturana, Simon)
many complex systems have the elusive property that local
interactions between their parts are not sufficient to
explain, understand or predict the operation of the whole
system of which they are part. Software methodologies employing
traditional modular decomposition will not be sufficient
to allow us to construct such systems in the lab.
If we are ever to see generally intelligent
artificial systems we must
look towards methodologies that more directly allow us to
model and study complex phenomena, calling for an investigation
of the principles of self-organization and meta-control.
In short, we must employ methods that allow the system to
develop on its own, through self-constructive principles.
This is constructivist
topic is the subject of my 2009
AAAI Fall Symposium on Biologically-Inspired Cognitive
Architectures keynote speech, as well as the subject
of the HUMANOBS
Workshop From Constructionist to Constructivist AI held
in the fall of 2011, and one of the main topics of our Summer
School on Constructivist AI and Artificial General Intelligence.
I have written two papers arguing for why
we need constructivist AI and why constructionist AI is not
going give us AGI. In the coming months I will be writing
and publishing papers on the specifics of constructivist
AI and how to apply it to construct real systems that promist
to achieve AGI.
A.I. research on applying principles of
self-organization in the design and implementation
of A.I. systems is called
constructivist A.I. As it is becoming clear
that the manual construction process employed in most of
software development wil not be sufficient to construct the
kinds of complex architectures that we require for general
intelligence, our focus must shift towards using techniques
that allow systems to acquire their own knowledge and grow
on their own. Without such principles in hand it is unlikely
that we will we see systems with architecture-wide
integration of learning, attention, analogy making and system
growth. Our recently-awarded HUMANOBS project
grant from the EU will enable us to take notable steps in
Constructivist AI: From Manual Methods to Self-Constructive
Artificial General Intelligence Through Peewee Granularity
A.I. (not to be confused with constructivist A.I. - see
above) is a moniker given to the bulk of A.I. research being
performed around the world, where traditional software development
methods form the basis of the work.
In this tradition we
developed the Constructionist Design Methodology (CDM),
which takes the best from the existing such methodologies.
CDM has the goal of easing the creation of modular, complex
machines that incorporate some aspects of a world-mind interaction
loop – perception-action loop. We have used it on the HONDA
Asimo humanoid robot and Mirage
autonomus virtual agent [ watch
movie]. Mirage inhabits
an augmented reality; this complex system of integrated
heterogeneous components was designed and implemented in
as little as 2 mind-months using the CDM. We think it's directly
due to the application of CDM in the project [published
in A.I. Magazine, winter 2004]. We have also used
CDM for a live performance of the Robot
Opera in Reykjavik, 2006 [
watch movie] and 2007. One of
our main and ongoing projects using the CDM is an artificial
radio show host that can conduct a full radio program
completely autonomously, including interview listeners over
Map Architecture for Honda ASIMO
Constructionist Design Methdology for Interactive Intelligences
From Constructionist to Constructivist A.I.
The mission of MINDMAKERS.ORG is to further development of
large integrated artificial intelligence systems, with a strong
focus on real-time human-humanoid interaction and collaboration.
The main forum for Constructionist AI. Please consider